Jenis-jenis Text Bahasa Inggris

Kinds of text in English, macam-macam text dalam bahasa Inggris, which are commonly studied in high school are:

I. NARRATIVE (NARASI)

Tujuan teks narratives adalah menghibur pendengar dengan cerita atau dongeng. Biasanya teks ini mengandung pesan moral.

Struktur teks narrative terdiri atas orientation (pengenalan tokoh,waktu dan tempat kejadian), complication (masalah dimana karakter utama terlibat) dan resolution (akhir cerita yang berisi solusi masalah).

Teks narrative dapat ditemukan pada folktales, fable, legend, myth, science fiction atau historical fiction. Ciri-ciri teks narrative:

1. Menggunakan nouns tertentu dan noun phrase.

2. Menggunakan connective, time conjuction dan adverbs of time.

3. Menggunakan saying verbs (said,told) dan thinking verbs, feeling verbs, verbs of senses (she` was very tired and hungry).

4. Menggunakan simple past tense.

Contoh:

Once upon a time, there was a poor farmer living with his wife. One day, he went to the nest of his goose to look for an egg. Suddenly, he was surprised, it was because he found a golden egg. It was weird. Then, he took it and hurried home to show his wife. Every day after that, his `goose laid a golden egg. The farmer and his wife were very happy and soon became a rich `family. However, the farmer became greedy. One day, he thought that if he killed the goose, he `would find all of its treasure at once. So, he killed the goose and cut it open. Inside of the goose, `he found nothing. Poor he!

II. RECOUNT

Tujuan teks recount yaitu untuk menceritakan /melaporkan peristiwa, kejadian, pengalaman atau kegiatan yang terjadi di masa lalu, contohnya liburan ke suatu tempat.

Struktur teks recount terdiri atas orientation (siapa yang terlibat dalam peristiwa; kapan dan dimana peristiwa itu terjadi) dan events (urutan kejadian). Kadang terdapat reorientation yang berisi kesimpulan dari peristiwa tersebut.

Ciri-ciri teks recount:

1. Menggunakan simple past tense.

2. Menggunakan temporal connectives untuk mengurutkan peristiwa.

3. Menggunakan pelaku individu atau grup, misalnya I atau we.

contoh:

I experienced an interesting holiday. My parents and I visited grandma’s house at a small village. I was very happy because I missed her so much. My interesting experience began when I had to take a bath. You know what happened? My grandma only had a well and opened bathroom. I didn’t want to take a bath there, but my parents forced me. Oh, I felt ashamed. Next, guess what? There was no restroom and I, really, needed to go there. But my grandma asked me to go to the river behind our home. That’s my embarrasing experience.Well, because of that I asked my father to make a bathroom and restroom inside of my grandma’s house.

III. NEWS ITEM

Teks news item bertujuan untuk memberitahukan informasi kepada pembaca tentang peristiwa yang dianggap penting atau layak dijadikan berita.

Struktur teks news item terdiri atas newsworthy events (menceritakan kejadian pada intinya), background events (berisi latar belakang peristiwa, meliputi uraian kejadian secara terperinci, siapa yang terlibat, tempat, waktu dan lain-lain), dan source (berisi sumber informasi /komentar dari saksi, orang yang terlibat atau pendapat ahli dalam bidangnya).

Ciri-ciri teks news item:

1. Menggunakan judul, headline yang menuangkan informasi singkat.

2. Menggunakan action verbs (admitted, abused).

3. Menggunakan saying verbs (said).

4. Menggunakan kalimat pasif /passive voice (A supervisor was jailed).

Contoh:

Good morning, listeners. I’m Linda and you’re listening to Headline News in Sky FM. The newsworthy event comes from our country.

Five scuba divers from Britain, France, and Sweden have been missing for more than three days in sea. Two British women, a British man and a French disappeared on Thursday in the treacherous waters of Komodo National Park in Nusa Tenggara islands, east of Bali. Police said that a rescue team from Indonesian Police and Navy had conducted a search, but there had been no result so far. We’re waiting for the next news. Okay, listeners, that’s the news for today.

IV. REPORT

Tujuan teks report adalah mendeskripsikan/ melaporkan sesuatu apa adanya. Teks ini merupakan hasil pengamatan, penelitian tentang fenomena alam, sosial dan budaya (natural or non natural).

Struktur teks report terdiri atas general classification (pernyataan umum meliputi subjek laporan dan klasifikasinya) dan description (deskripsi yang meliputi qualities, parts and their functions, habits/behaviors, dan uses (kegunaan) apabila subjeknya non natural (tidak hidup)).

Ciri-ciri teks report antara lain: menerangkan general nouns sebagai subjeknya. Misalnya birds, komodoes, orchids menggunakan simple present tense (jika belum punah), tidak perlu time sequence words / tidak perlu urut, menggunakan relating verbs (is, are, has, have), dan menggunakan istilah teknis khusus, misalnya tree (pohon): stem, root, branch.

Contoh:

Have you seen girrafes? Well, girrafes are the tallest animals. They belong to mammals since they bear their babies. They also belong to herbivores. It is because they feed on green plants. The special characteristuc of them is that they have long necks and horns.

V. PROCEDURE

Tujuan teks procedure adalah member petunjuk cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah.

Struktut teks Procedure:

1. Title /Goal = Judul / Tujuan Kegiatan

2. Clasification/ Definition (optional), Keterangan tentang subject laporan

dan klasifikasinya ( Bisa ada, bisa tidak)

  1. List Of Materials ( Daftar Bahan-Bahan)
  2. Steps, Langkah-l;angkah kerja /kegiatan

Teks procedure adalah teks yang menyampaikan tentang tata cara melakukan sesuatu. Cara penulisannya pada umumnya dalam bentuk poin per poin.

Struktur dari teks procedure, yaitu:

1. Tujuan kegiatan

yle=""> 2. Bahan-bahan

3. Langkah-langkah

Menggunakan:

1. Present Tense

2. Imperatives Sentences (Kalimat Perintah). Misal: Cut, Don’t mix , dsb.

3. Temporal Sequences (First, Next, then, after that… Finally)

4. Action Verbs. Misal: turn, put, Don’t, dsb.

5. Connection (kata hubung) untuk mengurutkan kejadian

6. Adverbial untuk menyatakan rinci waktu, tempat, cara yang akurat. Misal: for five minutes,

2 centimeters from the top, dsb.

Contoh teks procedure:

How to Make Orange Tea

Ingredients: 1 orange, sweet tea, soda drink (use uncoloured soda), and ice.

Utensils: Jug, knife, spoon, and drinking glass.

Method:

1. Cut the orange into circle shapes, try to cut it thinly.

2. Put the cut orange and ice into jug.

3. Pour the soda drink into the jug.

4. Add the already prepared sweet tea.

5. Stir the ingredients in the jug well.

6. After pouring the orange tea in a glass, you can decorate the brim of the glass with left over orange pieces.

VI. Descriptive: Menggambarkan cirri-ciri seseorang, benda atau tempat tertentu secara

Khusus

GENERIC STRUCTURE (SUSUNAN TEXT)

  1. Identification: Pengenalan benda, orang, sesuatu yang akan dideskripsikan
  2. Description : Menggambarkan cirri khusus, misalnya, asalnya darimana, warna, ukuran, kesukaan, penampilan, tingkah laku dsbnya dari sesuatu yang dibahas saja.

GRAMATICAL FEATURES ( CIRI KEBAHASAAN)

  1. Menggunakan present tense
  2. Kalimat passive
  3. Noun tertentu, misalnya: teacher, my cat, my house
  4. Detailed Noun Phrase: memberikan informasi tentang subyek, adjective yang bersifat describing,numbering, classifying, misalnya two strong legs

Contoh Text Descriptive:

My Timmy

I have some pets. However, my favorite pet is Timmy. Timmy is a male cat. he is very

adorable with his soft stripes fur. He has innocent round eyes and a sweet voice. He

always meaows when he feels hungry. Actually, his voice is not suitable for his giant

body. When I come home, he usually gives me a kiss. Timmy is a nice playmate. I’m

happy to spend my time with him. Most of the time, he is a good boy. It is almost

impossible for me to be angry with him. In the morning, he always wakes up early.

When he wakes up earlier, he waits quietly by my bed until I wake up.

Source: linameichan.blogspot.com/2010/02/text-type-in-english.html

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